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Alexandrite

Tsarstone collectors guide

A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector´s Guide

This annotated bibliography was compiled for use in writing "Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector´s Guide" and developing the directory of alexandrite finds around the world.

Prince Michael of Greece, H.R.H. Jewels of the Tsars. 1st ed.
London: Scroptum Editions, 2007.
This book written by a Romanov descendant Prince Michael Of Greece, examines the imperial family's collection of jewelry and their place in the history of Imperial Russia.
Bejewelled by Tiffany, 1837-1987: 1837-1987. 1st ed.
London: Yale University Press, 2006. 77-79.
This book is edited by Clare Phillips, Curator of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. With essays by a team of leading jewelry historians and include information of the re-establishment of Tiffany as an international company following the Second World
Anderson, W., B. and Jobbins, A., E.. Gem Testing. 10 ed.
Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1990.
A guide to the various minerals of the world, how to collect them and identify them correctly and information on the manufacture and enhancement of gemstones and the detection of synthetic, imitation and composite stones.
Conway, J., D.. A Complete Guide to Stones and Their Magical Properties.
Crossing Press: 1999.
An excellent guide to the properties and use of crystals discusses the archaeological processes in the formation of stones and history of mankind's use of gems and crystals and includes information on practical spell-magic with stones, sounds and cryst
Byrappa, Kullaiah and Ohachi, Tadashi. Crystal Growth for Modern Technology. 1st ed.
Berkshire: Noyes Publications, 1999.
This book deals with almost all modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Covers topics such as quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, an
Hurlbut, Searle, Cornelius and Kammerling, C., Robert. Gemology. 2nd ed.
Wiley-Interscience, 1991.
This book reflects recent developments in the highly specialized field of gemology, including gemstone synthesis, imitation gems, the alteration of gems to improve or otherwise change their color, color phenomena and a number of new gem minerals or new fo
Spencer, James, Leonard. Precious Stones. 2nd ed.
Lodnon: C. Griffin and Co, 1904.
Classic work about precious stones includes information on all aspects of gemmology, from assembling collections to cutting and polishing stones.
Aleskeyev, V., V.. The Last Act of a Tragedy.
Ekaterinburg: Russian Heritage, 1996.
Bruhns, Karl. Life of Alexander von Humboldt.
London: Longman Green and Co, 1873.
Grove-White, W., C.. The Manufacture of synthetic crystals in the plant at I.G. Farbenindustrie, Oppau-Ludwigshafen.
H.M. Stationery Office, 1946.
MacInnes, Daniel. Synthetic gem and allied crystal manufacture.
Noyes Data Corp, 1973.
Dieuflafait, Louis. Diamonds and Precious Stones.
London: Blackie and Son, 1874.
Dixon, Simon. The Modernisation of Russia, 1676-1825.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Levi, Eliphas. The key of the great mysteries.
Red Wheel / Weiser, 2001.
This book is the Rosicrucian interpretation of the Qabalah, which forms the basis of magic as practiced in the West today. The Key of the Mysteries represents the culmination of Alphonse Louis Constant's thoughts and reveals the mysteries of religion and
Fersman, E., A.. Sketches of Stone History. 2nd ed.
Moscow: Akad Nauk USSR, 1962.
Fernie, T., William. Precious Stones: For Curative Wear, Other Remedial Uses and Likewise the Nobler Metals.
Kessinger Publishing, 1942.
This work focuses on the practical uses and occult lore of precious and semi-precious stones.
Hausen, Hans and Tiedeseura, Suomen. The history of geology and mineralogy in Finland 1828-1918.
Helsinki: Societas scientiarum Fennica, 1968.
Emanuel, Henry. Diamonds and Precious Stones: Their History, Value, and Distinguishing.
London: John Camden Hotter, 1873.
Iskenderov, Akhmedovich, Akhmed and Raleigh, J., Donald. Emperors and Empresses of Russia: Rediscovering the Romanovs.
M.E. Sharpe: John Camden Hotter, 1996.
Hall, Judy and Gallagher, Marie, Ann. The Crystal Bible: A Definitive Guide to Crystals.
New York: F & W Publications Incorporated, 2003.
This work provides a comprehensive guide to crystals, their shapes, colors and applications. It also includes information on crystals appearance, worldwide distribution, attributes, actions and healing properties. Both major and lesser-known stones curren
Kochubei, V., A.. Family Chronicles: Kochubei Memoirs of 1790-1873.
St.Petersburg: Broth, 1890.
Kochubei, V., A.. Kochubei Reminiscences of the Emperor Alexander's II Errand in Winter 1856.
St.Petersburg: Broth, 1890.
Korbel, Petr and Novak, Milan. The Complete Encyclopedia of Minerals.
New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc, 1999.
This definitive study of the magical abilities and strange characteristics of precious stones includes wide range of sources: Greek, Latin documents, medieval lapidaries, Eddas, Egyptian writings, Oriental gem books, the Bible - reveal magic, occult, medi
Kunz, Frederick, George. The Curious Lore of Precious Stones.
London: JB Lippencott Co, 1913.
This definitive study of the magical abilities and strange characteristics of precious stones includes a wide range of sources: Greek, Latin documents, medieval lapidaries, Eddas, Egyptian writings, Oriental gem books, the Bible - reveal magic, occult, me
Lossky, Vladimir and Ouspensky, Leonid. The Meaning of Icons.
St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1982.
Leskov, S., N.. The Alexandrite.
St.Petersburg: Nova, 1886.
O'Donoghue, Michael. Synthetic, Imitation and Treated Gemstones.
Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
The book describes a wide range of gem and ornamental materials, species by species and reveals when gemstones can be artificially manufactured, synthesized or imitated by other materials.
Radzinski, Edvard. Nikolai II - Life and Death.
Moscow: Vagrius, 1997.
Wise, W., Richard. Secrets of the Gem Trade: The Connoisseur's Guide to Precious Gemstones.
Brunswick House Press, 2003.
Tweney, F., C.. Chambers's Technical Dictionary.
New York: Macmillan, 1958.
Scientific Encyclopedia.
Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, 1958.
Ward, B., Frank. Textbook of Precious Stones.
New York: Putnams, 1918.
O'Donoghue, Michael and Webster, Robert. Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification. 5 ed.
London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994.
Gems.
London: Butterworths, 1983.
Precious and Semi Precious Stones.
Bath: Pitman and Sons, 1929.
Westropp, Michael, Hodder. Manual of Precious Stones and Antique Gems.
London: Samson, 1874.
Manutchehr-Danai, Mohsen. Dictionary of gems and gemology.
New York: Springer, 2005.
Belakovskiy, D.. Famous mineral localities and mineral collecting in the former Soviet Union, past and present.
Mineralogical Record (2001)
Downes, J., P. and Bevan, W., A.. Chrysoberyl, beryl and zincian spinel mineralization in granulite-facies Archaean rocks at Dowerin, Western Australia.
Minerological Magazine (2002)
White, B., W. and McKay, J.. The Alexandrite effect: an optical study..
American Mineralogist (1967) :53-70.
Gubelin, J., Edward and Schmetzer, K.. Gemstones with alexandrite effect.
Gems & Gemology 18 (1979) :197-203.
Gubelin, J., Edward and Schmetzer, K.. Alexandrite-like natural spinel from Sri Lanka.
Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie 1980 (1980) :428-432.
Gubelin, J., Edward. Alexandrite from Lake Manyara, Tanzania.
Gems & Gemology 15 (1980) :203-209.
Mallik, K., A. and Mukhopadhyay, K., P. and Roy, Ghosh. Some Alkaline Complexes of West Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh etc.
Survey India, Special Publication 58 (2001)
Couto, P. and Giuliani, G.. Origin of Emerald Deposits of Brazil.
Mineralium Deposita 58 (1990)
Hausel, W., D.. Gemstones of the world geology, occurrence and exploration.
Wyoming State Geological Survey (2005)
Kampf, R., Anthony. On the Road to Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Rocks & Minerals (2000)
Downes, J., P.. Alexandrite chrysoberyl from Dowerin, Western Australia.
Australian Gemmologist (1997) :460-463.
Homem, J., Luiz and De Oliveira, Genario, Jose and Gaal, Gabor, Edmund. Implication of the Caraiba deposit's structural controls on the emplacement of the cu-bearing hypersthenites of the Curaca Valley, Bahia-Brazil.
Revista Brasileira de Geociencias (1996)
Lyckberg, Peter. Gem pegmatite and Greisen deposits of Russia during the twentieth century.
Mineralogical Record (2001)
Moine, B. and Rakotondrazafy, M. and Rakotondratsima, A. and Cuney, M.. Controls on the urano-thorianite deposits in S-E Madagascar.
Proceedings of the UNESCO-IUGSIGCP International Field Workshop (1997) :55.
Petersen, J., K. and Guttler, A., R. and Schultz-Guttler, R. and Schultz, R.. Alexandrite at Minacu, Goias and its formation Conditions.
International Geological Congress 31 (2000)
Pinheiro, B., V. and Baslio, S., M. and Krambrock, K. and Dantas, S., M. and Paniago, R. and Assuncao, L., A. and Pedrosa-Soares, C., A.. The cause of colour of the blue alexandrites from Malacacheta, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Journal of Gemmology 27 (2000) :161-170.
Transactions of the Imperial Mineralogical Society.
Mineral 13 (1878) :431-432.
Transactions of the Imperial Mineralogical Society.
Mineral 15 (1880) :171-172.
Transactions of the Imperial Mineralogical Society.
Mineral 30 (1893) :399-415.
Gubelin, J., Edward and Schmetzer, K.. The alexandrite effect in minerals: chrysoberyl, garnet, corundum, fluorite.
Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Abhandlungen (1980) :147-164.
Rudowski, L. and Giuliani, G. and Sabate, P.. Emerald bearing phlogopites in the proximity of the Campo Formoso and Carnaiba granites (Bahia, Brazil).
Comptes rendus de l'Academie des sciences (1987)
Cook, Rober. Chrysoberyl.
Rocks and Minerals (1999)
Laskovenkov, F., A. and Zhernakov, I., V. and Sabate, P.. An update on the Ural emerald mines.
Gems & Gemology 31 (1995) :106-113.
Lavrov, V., N.. Alexander II. Tsarskoe Selo Museum-Preserve, Pushkin.
Fig. 1.: Alexander II - Russian "green morning full of hopes".
Costantini, F.. Bloody evening. 1975. London.
Fig. 2.: Alexander II laying upon the snow, profusely bleeding, abandoned by all of his followers.
Petrov-Vodkin, Kuzma. Red Horse. The Tretyakov Gallery.
Fig. 3.: An ominous foreshadowing of Imperial Russia.
The colonisation of the Urals. State Historical Museum, Moscow.
Fig. 4.: Cossack forces and their families were ordered to far-flung frontiers of the expanding Russian Empire - The Ural Mountains, as military colonists.
Capital of Urals. State Historical Museum, Moscow.
Fig. 5.: Alexandrite was discovered in the newly found emerald mines near the city of Ekaterinburg, unofficially named as the "third capital" or the "capital of Urals"
Vasilchikov, A., A.. Count Lev Alekseevich Perovskii. 1880. London.
Fig. 6.: Russian mineralogist and Vice-President (1852 - 1856) of the Appanage Department responsible for naming alexandrite in the honor of Tsarevich Alexander.
Tsarevich Alexander.
Fig. 7.: Alexander II succeeded to the throne to became Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881.
Abraham Gottlob Werner.
Fig. 8.: German mineralogist and geologist who discovered and first described chrysoberyl in 1789.
Weinberg, David. Chrysoberyl. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 9.: Chrysoberyl is normally yellow, yellow-green, or a brownish gemstone, unknown in its own right due the confusion between chrysoberyl and beryl.
Weinberg, David. Cymophane. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 10.: Translucent yellowish chatoyant chrysoberyl with microscopic needle-like inclusions inside the stone reflect a streak of light known as a cat´s eye.
Semenova, I., Janna. Alexandrite. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 11.: Chrysoberyl that displays a color change from green or blue-green in daylight to purple-red under incandescent light.
Semenova, I., Janna. Chrysolite. 2007. Multicolour Gems Ltd, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 18 Jul 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 12.: Ordinary chrysoberyl is yellowish-green, transparent to translucent and often has been referred to in literature as chrysolite, but that name is no longer used in the gemological nomenclature.
Semenova, I., Janna. Alexandrite under candlelight. 2007. Multicolour Gems Ltd, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 18 Jul 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 13.: Incandescent lighting contains a higher balance of red light and alexandrite appears red to the human eye.
Semenova, I., Janna. Alexandrite under mixed light. 2007. Multicolour Gems Ltd, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 14.: Alexandrite effect phenomenon of an observed color change from greenish to reddish with a change in source illumination.
Semenova, I., Janna. Alexandrite under sunlight. 2007. Multicolour Gems Ltd, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 15.: Daylight contains high proportions of blue and green light and the stone appears green to the human eye.
Semenova, I., Janna. Tanzanian uncut chrysoberyl. 2006. Icgems Ltd, Bangkok.
Icgems. Indochine House Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.icgems.com/>.
Fig. 16.: Very rare minty bluish-green uncut chrysoberyls from Tanzania owe their color to the presence of vanadium.
Semenova, I., Janna. Indian uncut alexandrite. 2006. Icgems Ltd, Bangkok.
Icgems. Indochine House Ltd. 20 Aug 2006. <http://www.icgems.com/>.
Fig. 17.: Alexandrite from Samunda mines famous for their plumb reddish purple color under incandescent light.
Semenova, I., Janna. Heirloom jewelry. 2005.
Indochine House Ltd. 01 January 2005.
Fig. 18.: First synthetic color-change corundum was grown in 1909 and used as an alexandrite imitation. A lot of alexandrite heirloom jewelry contains synthetic corundum laced with vanadium to produce the color change.
Semenova, I., Janna. Flux grown synthetic alexandrite. 2007. Diamond Technologies Co., Ltd., Bangkok.
Diamond Tech. Indochine House Ltd. 22 Septmeber 2007. <http://www.diamondtech.com/>.
Fig. 19.: Flux grown alexandrite contains particles of flux, resembling liquid feathers with a refractive index and specific gravity that echo that of the natural material.
Semenova, I., Janna. Pulled synthetic alexandrite. 2007. Diamond Technologies Co., Ltd., Bangkok.
Diamond Tech. Indochine House Ltd. 22 Septmeber 2007. <http://www.diamondtech.com/>.
Fig. 20.: Czochralski or pulled alexandrite looks very clean, but contains curved striations visible with magnification and stone color is bluish under the daylight.
Semenova, I., Janna. Pulled synthetic alexandrite. 2007. Diamond Technologies Co., Ltd., Bangkok.
Diamond Tech. Indochine House Ltd. 22 Septmeber 2007. <http://www.diamondtech.com/>.
Fig. 21.: Synthetic corundum laced with vanadium have refractive index of 1.759 - 1.778 , contains gas bubbles and shows a characteristic purple-mauve colour change.
Golota, Ivan. Czochralski pulling technique. 2006. Indochine HouseLtd, Kiev.
NetComposite. 15 June 2008. <http://www.netcomposite.com/>.
Fig. 22.: Schematics for the Czochralski-pulling technique for growth of single crystal rods of high-melting oxides and other materials, directly from the melt.
Golota, Ivan. The flux process. 2006. Indochine HouseLtd, Kiev.
NetComposite. 15 June 2008. <http://www.netcomposite.com/>.
Fig. 23.: Schematics for the flux growth of chrysoberyl. The latter dissolves in the flux and regrows as a single crystal on the seed.
Golota, Ivan. Verneuil flame fusion. 2006. Indochine HouseLtd, Kiev.
NetComposite. 15 June 2008. <http://www.netcomposite.com/>.
Fig. 24.: Verneuil's technique method where melting occurs in the hottest part of the flame and the melt solidifies on the boule, which is slowly withdrawn downwards as it grows.
Golota, Ivan. Hydrothermal technique. 2006. Indochine HouseLtd, Kiev.
NetComposite. 15 June 2008. <http://www.netcomposite.com/>.
Fig. 25.: High pressure, high temperature autoclave used for hydrothermal synthesis of quartz crystals.
Semenova, I., Janna. Tanzanian alexandrite. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Multicolour Gems Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 26.: Fine color change and exceptional clarity faceted alexandrite (8.66 cts) from the Tunduru deposit, Tanzania.
Semenova, I., Janna. Indian alexandrite. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Multicolour Gems Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 27.: Faceted alexandrite (2.71 cts) with distinctive color change (bluish green to medium red-purple) from Araku, India.
Semenova, I., Janna. Brazilian alexandrite. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Multicolour Gems Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 28.: Very strong color change and good clarity fine alexandrite (3.61 cts) from Hematita, Brazil.
Semenova, I., Janna. Cymophane. 2007. The private collection of David Weinberg, Bangkok.
Multicolour. Multicolour Gems Ltd. 16 November 2007. <http://www.multicolour.com/>.
Fig. 29.: Finest quality "milk and honey" cat's eye (cymophane) with sharp silvery white line across the stone that appears to open and close as the stone is rotated.

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Bibliographic details
Page title A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide
Author David Weinberg
Website title Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide
Date published 03 July 2010 05:39 UTC
Date accessed 02 September 2014 11:13 UTC
Permanent link http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002
AMA style
David Weinberg. "A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide". In Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide. July 03, 2010, 05:39 UTC. Available at: http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002. Accessed September 02, 2014.
APA style
"A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide". (2010, July 03). In Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide. Retrieved 11:13, September 02, 2014, from http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002.
Bluebook style
"A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide", http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002 (last visited September 02, 2014).
Bluebook: Harvard JOLT style
See Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide, "A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide", http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002 (An annotated bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide) (as of Sep. 02, 2014, 11:13 GMT).
CBE/CSE style
David Weinberg. "A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide". In Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide. 2010 Jul 03, 05:39 UTC.[Internet], Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide; 2010 Jul 03, 05:39 UTC [cited 2014 Sep 02]. Available from: http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002.
Chicago style
David Weinberg, "A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide", http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002, (accessed September 02, 2014).
MLA style
"A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide". Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide. 03 Jul 2010, 05:39 UTC. 02 Sep 2014 http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002
MHRA style
David Weinberg, "A Bibliography of Alexandrite Gemstone Buyer and Collector's Guide", Alexandrite Tsarstone Collectors Guide, 03 July 2010, 05:39 UTC, http://www.alexandrite.net/viewpage.html?id=ALXS-002-00002 [accessed 02 September 2014].
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